Frequently Asked Questions:
Types of Text Improvement

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Phone: +49 541 9704066
E-mail: info@unker.com

Types of Text Improvement

There are many different ways in which a text may be revised and improved. The following provides you with an overview of the main types of text improvement that we offer.

Please be aware that terminology in this field is not universal, and that not all providers define the central concepts in the same way. Neither does everyone use the same general term to cover all these ways of working on the text. We talk in a broad sense about “text revision”, “text optimization” or “text improvement”. Others simply use “proof-reading” or “text correction”.

Of course, all these types of editing are used not just in isolation, but more frequently in combination.

  • Proof-reading: this involves correcting spelling, syntax and grammar. More >>

  • Layout editing, page proofing, galley proof correction: checking and correcting the layout of a text that has already been made up, while it is in the form of a printer’s proof, or ‘galley’ (on paper or electronic). More >>

  • Final editing: the last edit before the publication or printing of the text. In practice, this mainly involves a proof-reading, which may also include layout editing if the customer so wishes. More >>

  • Copyediting: text optimization that is stylistic and structural, and which by agreement may also cover content. This will always include a proof-reading of the spelling and grammar. More >>

  • Substantive editing, or simply editing: a deeper form of editing, which also takes the substance of the text (content, order of the paragraphs etc.) and optimises, clarifies or condenses the writing where appropriate. More >>

  • Academic or scientific proof-reading and editing: proof-reading or editing scholarly or academic texts. This includes checking adherence to the required standards for scholarly work in respect of academic writing style, correct spelling and grammar, and consistent citation style, as well as adherence to accepted terminology etc. More >>

  • Technical copyediting and specialist editing: subjecting factual, technical and specialised texts to copyediting or editing by a suitably qualified editor with the right level of expertise and the appropriate academic background and knowledge base. More >>

  • Copyediting and editing of publicity material: for advertising copy and blurbs. This type of optimization can also be considered a form of specialist copy editing. More >>

  • Search engine optimization (SEO): copyediting or editing of website texts in order to improve the relevant websites’ positioning in the search results and consequently the number of visits to the sites. The optimization of texts for this purpose is an essential element of the SEO of a website, and is referred to as Onsite or Content Optimization. More >>

  • Plagiarism Check: also called plagiarism detection or plagiarism testing. Its purpose is to examine whether the citation style is consistent and correct, as well as to investigate whether other people’s ideas have been adopted, either word for word or in terms of the content, without being appropriately identified. It may concern the customer’s own text, but it could also be suspected plagiarism in another’s text which is at issue. Plagiarism checks are not only important in relation to academic work, but are also relevant to the search engine optimization of website texts, as so-called Duplicate Content (multiple use of the same texts and content) has a negative effect on ranking. More >>

  • Improving translation quality: proof-reading, copyediting and editing translations. Proof-reading is usually insufficient on its own, and comparison with the original text is necessary. This timely assistance avoids the risk of translation mistakes occurring. More >>

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Working hours:

Monday – Friday:
UTC+1: 08:30 a.m. – 5:00 p.m.
UTC-5: 03:30 a.m. – 12:00 noon

We are often available after hours.